The two Russian PLWR and two PHW reactors are recently brought under IAEA safeguards.
Which nuclear reactors are under IAEA safeguards?
In 2017, the government sanctioned 10 new pressurised heavy water reactors and a decision on these being put under IAEA safeguards has to be taken, the official said. The 10 reactors are being installed in Kaiga, Karnataka; Chutka, Madhya Pradesh; Gorakhpur, Haryana; and Mahi Banswara, Rajasthan.
Why are some nuclear reactors kept under IAEA safeguard?
By placing the reactors under the IAEA safeguards, India gives the international nuclear energy watchdog access to them. This step was taken by the country in 2014 to demonstrate that its nuclear energy programme was for peaceful purposes. This is a necessary step under the Indo-US nuclear deal.
Is thorium under IAEA safeguards?
Radioactive sources that do not contain uranium, plutonium or thorium are not subject to safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under a safeguards agreement. Safeguards help to reconcile the dual nature of the atom.
Which nuclear reactor is the safest?
SMRs are a slimmed-down version of conventional fission reactors. Although they produce far less power, their smaller size and use of off-the-shelf components help reduce costs. These reactors are designed to be safer than traditional water-cooled reactors, using coolants such as liquid sodium or molten salts instead.
What is IAEA Upsc?
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – UPSC Notes. The International Atomic Energy Agency is an important United Nations agency working in the field of nuclear cooperation. International agencies are relevant for the UPSC exam, particularly, the UPSC Prelims.
What does IAEA stand for?
International Atomic Energy Agency | Atoms for Peace and Development.
Why are nuclear safeguards important?
The objective of IAEA Safeguards is to deter the spread of nuclear weapons by the early detection of the misuse of nuclear material or technology. This provides credible assurances that States are honouring their legal obligations that nuclear material is being used only for peaceful purposes.
How many countries signed civil nuclear deal with India?
There are 14 countries with which India has forged such agreements: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Russia, South Korea, United Kingdom, US and Vietnam.
What is the implication of ratifying additional protocol with IAEA?
India signed the Additional Protocol (AP) to the IAEA safeguards agreement on May 15, 2009. The ratification of additional protocol will ensure the collection of data of India’s nuclear exports, to guarantee that the material is not diverted for unauthorised use.
Are IAEA inspections helpful in countering nuclear weapons?
“Inspections by an impartial, credible third party have been a cornerstone of international nuclear arms control agree- ments for decades. Where the intent exists to develop a clandestine nuclear weapons programme, inspections serve effectively as a means of both detection and deterrence.”
How does IAEA ensure compliance with NPT?
In addition, the IAEA, through its safeguards system, verifies compliance with similar non-proliferation undertakings by parties to regional nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties . … Under such agreements, the IAEA is also responsible for verifying the absence of possible undeclared material and activities .
What is Safeguards Agreement?
Safeguards agreements ensure that all nuclear activity a state undertakes is for peaceful purposes and that a state is not engaging in illicit nuclear activities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is the independent organization charged with applying safeguards.
Are CANDU reactors safe?
One witness described it as the safest nuclear technology in the world. No serious injury or death to workers or the public has been recorded in more than 30 years of operation of CANDU reactors in Canada. … The separation of cooling water and moderator water in the CANDU design is also seen as a safety advantage.
What is the most advanced nuclear reactor?
The most developed Gen IV reactor design, the sodium fast reactor, has received the greatest share of funding over the years with a number of demonstration facilities operated. The principal Gen IV aspect of the design relates to the development of a sustainable closed fuel cycle for the reactor.
Who makes the best nuclear reactors?
Top ten nuclear power plants by capacity
- Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, France. …
- Paluel Nuclear Power Plant, France. …
- Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant, France. …
- Yangjiang Nuclear Power Plant, China. …
- Shin Kori Nuclear Power Plant, South Korea. …
- Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant, China. …
- Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.