Why are some nuclear reactors kept under IAEA safeguards while others are not?

In India, why are some nuclear reactors kept under “IAEA Safeguards” while others are not ? Explanation: IAEA Safeguards are meant to understand if imported/enriched uranium is not used for non-peaceful purposes. New reactors under IAEA safeguards: Decision will be based on source of uranium, says official.

Which nuclear reactors kept under IAEA safeguards?

In 2017, the government sanctioned 10 new pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) and a decision on these being put under IAEA safeguards has to be taken, the official said. The 10 reactors are being installed in Kaiga in Karnataka, Chutka in Madhya Pradesh, Gorakhpur in Haryana, and Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan.

What are the objectives of IAEA safeguards as applied to NPT non nuclear weapon states?

The objective of IAEA Safeguards is to deter the spread of nuclear weapons by the early detection of the misuse of nuclear material or technology. This provides credible assurances that States are honouring their legal obligations that nuclear material is being used only for peaceful purposes.

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Is thorium under IAEA safeguards?

Radioactive sources that do not contain uranium, plutonium or thorium are not subject to safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under a safeguards agreement. Safeguards help to reconcile the dual nature of the atom.

Why are nuclear power plants guarded?

Weapons-usable material must be kept out of the hands of states and terrorists trying to make nuclear weapons, and nuclear reactors and spent fuel must be protected from sabotage, lest an attack spread radioactive debris over a large area, killing many and injuring more.

What are IAEA safeguards Upsc?

Safeguards are activities by which the IAEA can verify that a State is living up to its international commitments not to use nuclear programmes for nuclear-weapons purposes. Safeguards are based on assessments of the correctness and completeness of a State’s declared nuclear material and nuclear-related activities.

What is IAEA relation with the UN Upsc?

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – UPSC Notes. The International Atomic Energy Agency is an important United Nations agency working in the field of nuclear cooperation. International agencies are relevant for the UPSC exam, particularly, the UPSC Prelims.

How does IAEA ensure compliance with NPT?

In addition, the IAEA, through its safeguards system, verifies compliance with similar non-proliferation undertakings by parties to regional nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties . … Under such agreements, the IAEA is also responsible for verifying the absence of possible undeclared material and activities .

What is the main purpose of comprehensive safeguards agreements?

Under a comprehensive safeguards agreement, the IAEA has the right and obligation to ensure that safeguards are applied on all nuclear material in the territory, jurisdiction or control of the State for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive …

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What is the purpose of safeguards agreement?

Safeguards agreements ensure that all nuclear activity a state undertakes is for peaceful purposes and that a state is not engaging in illicit nuclear activities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is the independent organization charged with applying safeguards.

Are IAEA inspections helpful in countering nuclear weapons?

“Inspections by an impartial, credible third party have been a cornerstone of international nuclear arms control agree- ments for decades. Where the intent exists to develop a clandestine nuclear weapons programme, inspections serve effectively as a means of both detection and deterrence.”

Why is nuclear security important?

Like nuclear safety, nuclear security aims to protect people, property, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Work to deal with the risks from sources of radiation during their normal use and from possible accidents is considered work to promote nuclear safety.

How does the IAEA inspect?

Activities IAEA inspectors perform during and in connec- tion with on-site inspections or visits at facilities may include auditing the facility’s accounting and operating records and comparing these records with the State’s accounting reports to the agency; verifying the nuclear material inventory and inventory …

What protects a nuclear reactor?

A reactor protection system (RPS) is a set of nuclear safety and security components in a nuclear power plant designed to safely shut down the reactor and prevent the release of radioactive materials. The system can “trip” automatically (initiating a scram), or it can be tripped by the operators.

How are nuclear reactors protected?

Access to the vital area is limited and protected by locked and alarmed security doors. Every nuclear power plant has an NRC-approved cybersecurity plan. A cyberattack cannot prevent critical systems in a nuclear energy facility from performing their safety functions.

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Why is nuclear energy a security threat?

They are also inviting targets for sabotage and terrorist attacks. A successful attack on a nuclear plant could have devastating consequences, killing, sickening or displacing large numbers of residents in the area surrounding the plant, and causing extensive long-term environmental damage.